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In Odessa 22.09.2018, 04:22 | Русский Український Deutsch English

Сognitive tourism

Nowadays in Odesa region there are about 4500 monuments of archeology, history, architecture and urban planning which are protected by the state and 12 towns that have special historic, architectural and urban value and are included in the list of historical settlements of Ukraine. About 100 cultural heritage objects acquired the status of monuments of national importance.

 

Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi is important for co-location of monuments of archeology, history, architecture and urban planning of our territory. It is one of the oldest towns in the world which continue to exist together with such cities as Rome, Athens, Damascus and Beijing. Location at the crossroads of important trade routes was the main determining factor in fate of this town. During its existence Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi has been under the rule of Rome, Byzantine Empire, Kievan Rus, Golden Horde, Moldavian Kingdom, Ottoman and Russian Empires. Many names eloquently indicate the history of the town: Tira, Alba-Yulia, Turis, Bilhorod, Ak-Libo, Monkastro, Chetatia-Albe, Feikheivar, Veisenberh, Ackerman, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. Ancient Greek city state of Tira was founded in VI century B.C. by settlers from Ionion city Miletus. Tira’s prosperity occurred in IV-III century B.C. Coins were cast here from the second half of IV century B.C. Rome began its “eastern” expansion during the reign of Neron (I century B.C.). In the middle of I B.C. Tira became part of Roman province of Lower Mezia. Roman legions moved into town in the early II century B.C. At different times there were V Macedonian, I Italian and XI Claudian legions. The town harbor was a place for Roman fleet. Tira retained significant rights of autonomy including continuing right to cast its own coins in the Roman Empire. Ancient cities of Northern Black Sea coast were attacked by Goths in III century B.C. In the second half of IV century after the invasion of Huns, Tira ceases to exist. Town of Bilhorod replaced ancient Tira during the reign of Kievan Rus. It should be noted that even after that various invaders attempted to rename the town. However, as events showed, they didn’t succeed and the name Bilhorod remained all through the centuries. Archaeologists have been excavating Tira from the beginning of XX century. The remains of neighborhoods of IV B.C. - IV A.D. and defensive structures of IV B.C. - the middle of III A.D. were found here. The complex of Roman citadel is of particular interest because it is well preserved. A few walls and towers as well as single-chamber building of I Italian Legion vexillatio were preserved. Stone crypt of Roman period from Tira necropolis called “Scythian tomb” has been preserved up to this day. Archaeologists have also found the whole Roman street, about 4.0 m wide, paved with flag stones and gutters and carefully laid walls of buildings maybe of public use. Some artifacts found during Tira archaeological excavations of different years are exhibited in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi local history museum. Numerous and various exhibits of the museum reveal an interesting history and cultural life of this town and region. Today the museum has about 80 thousand exhibits. Subjects of archeology are of particular interest. The museum has a collection of fragments of Byzantine pottery and Turkish ceramics, as well as amphoraes, terra cotta and marble statuettes. Numismatic collection includes coins of ancient cities, Golden Horde, Moldavian Kingdom, Ottoman and Russian Empires, foreign coins of XVII- XX centuries. Weapons collection has excellent examples of cold arms: spears, battle axes, arrows, Turkish yataghans, sabres and daggers dating XV-XIX centuries.

 

Time and wars destroyed many monuments of the past at this ancient land. But the preserved ones are priceless. And one of them is Ackerman fortress. This unique monument of defensive architecture of XIII-XV centuries, built on the foundation of Ionian Tira at the very waters of Dniestrovskyi estuary now attracts thousands of tourists from neighboring and far abroad countries. The dis - pute between historians who and when built this unique construction is not yet over. Some state that it was built by Genoese, others insist on Turkish origin of the fortress. There is a theory about being constructed by Slavic peoples.

 

Ancient Greek city of Nikonion was founded on the banks of the Dniestrovskyi estuary, near the present Roksolany village, Ovidiopol region by settlers from Istria or from Miletus in Asia Minor. Since the beginning of V century B.C. Nikonion began to cast its own coins. It was considered a polis (city) and it was likely ruled by a Scythian Tsar Skil mentioned by Herodotus. Some researchers connect the destruction of Nikonion in III-II centuries B.C. with a name of Macedonian commander, Zopirion, a companion of Oleksandr the Macedonian. At the beginning of our era the town is included into the interests of Roman Empire and revived. In two centuries the town is completely destroyed under the blows of Goths and ceases to exist. Remains of ancient Greek Nikonion are the monuments of archeology of national importance. Artifacts found during archaeological excavations of this ancient town are kept in Odesa Archaeological Museum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It should be noted that these artifacts were found in 1825. Odesa Archaeological Museum is now one of the oldest in Ukraine. The main holdings of the museum consist of about 170 thousand exhibits. This is the largest collection of archaeological sources of ancient history study in Southern Ukraine in chronological range from Stone Age to Middle Ages. Museum has the largest collection of ancient vases, antique terracotta, collection of medieval sculpture and architectural details, numismatic collection and toreutics etc. Its exposition has also a collection of antiquities from Cyprus, Egypt, Greece and Italy. In 2008 the museum’s collections were given the status of national treasure.

 

Izmail, the largest town of Ukrainian Lower Danube is prominent for historical and cognitive tourism of the region. Due to repeated assaults of Izmail fortress in a number of Russian-Turkish wars this town was included into military literature as a town of military virtue. At the end of XVIII century Izmail fortress was one of the most impregnable in Europe. However, after the Crimean War, under the terms of Paris Peace Treaty it was blown up. Only a Turkish mosque - a unique construction, one of a few examples of Turkish architecture of its period and of greatest prosperity remained. Diorama “Attacking the fortress of Izmail by Russian troops and Ukrainian Cossacks in December 1790” is located in the mosque today. A crucial moment of attacking the fortress which took place under the command of Oleksandr Suvorov during Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 is depicted on canvas of 20 x 8 meters. Historical place where during the attack of Izmail fortress in 1790 the headquarters of prominent general O.V. Suvorov was located is situated 2 km away from Izmail, near Safiany village. O.V. Suvorov History Museum with about 34 thousand items in its collection was opened in 1946. This is the collection of uniforms and equipment of Russian and Western European armies of ХVII–ХХ centuries, rare book editions of life and work of O.V. Suvorov, a variety of historical and everyday objects. The most interesting part of the museum collections is connected with materials covering the attack on the fortress in 1790. In particular, there is a large collection of cold arms and firearms, flags of Russian and Turkish armies of XVIII-XIX centuries, as well as cannon-balls and bombs found on the territory of the former Izmail fortress. An unusual monument of science and technology of national importance included in the List of UNESCO World Heritage is located not far from Izmail in Stara Nekrasivka village. It’s a monument situated on the place of Southern geodetic station of Struve Geodetic Arc. This monument was erected in 1857 in honor of scientific achievement made by Russian, Swedish and Norwegian land-surveyors who measured the meridian arc (2820 km) from the Arctic Ocean coast to the Danube banks. The remains of Roman fortifications “Trajan Wall” (I-III century B.C.) are located next to the village Kamianka, Izmail district. Roman style Trajan Walls are long earthen fortifications 4-5 meters height and 10 m wide, built many centuries ago to protect against enemy attacks. There is a theory that the Romans started their construction during the reign of Roman Emperor Trajan.

 

Vylkove town was founded in the middle of XVIII century by Russian Schismatics - Old Believers as Lipovans settlement and is interesting in the historical and cultural meaning. Settling here the ancestors of Vylkove citizens started to regain the land from water. The Danube assisted them by sluicing thousands of tons of fertile silt at its mouth annually. The settlers raked out this slit thus paving the channels. The slit itself became land and building material. Due to this a unique town where the channels (erics) have become streets was founded. Vylkove citizens erected a monument to Old Believer on the town embankment in honor of Lipovans, the town founders. It’s a harsh, thin man with a beard, wearing sandals, overcoming fatigue and pain, carrying a huge cross. Vylkove town has author’s local history museum of local artist O.A. Sharonov. From early childhood color of native land and the unsurpassed Danube landscapes were sunk deep into heart of this future artist. In 2002 Oleksandr Sharonov creates Vylkove art gallery. Pictures that were painted by him realistically reflect the originality of indigenous Vylkove citizens and uniqueness of Ukrainian Lower Danube. Landscapes and characters of pictures are taken from real life: in the paintings you can see everyday scenes of fishermen and gardeners, bridges and houses, streets and shallow erics. With the lapse of time the artist creates author’s local history museum based on the gallery. To fill the museum with exhib - its Oleksandr works a lot. He painted pictures and exchanged them for historical artifacts. At the same time he had been do - ing tremendously hard work to find exhibits, exchange and purchase them. Today museum exposition includes almost 4000 exhibits.

 

Everyday life of German colonists who settled in our lands is vividly described in the Museum-Homestead of Edwin Kelm in Myrnopillia village (until 1944 — Fridenstal) of Artsyz district. In 1998 E. Kelm bought a house of his grand - grandfather built in 1868, restored everything from the en - vironment and decoration of rooms to household yard as a typical German homestead of early XX century. And later on he opened a private ethnographic museum. The museum of Khristo Botev, the famous Bulgarian poet, journalist and national hero of Bulgaria is situated in the north of Artsyz district in Zadunaivka village. The exposition of the museum, which is a branch of Odesa Literature Museum de - scribes the history of Bulgarians, who were forced to leave their homeland to escape Ottoman oppression, and in partic - ular it describes the history of Zadunaivka foundation in 1822. The keynote of the exhibition is life and work of prominent Bulgarian poet Khristo Botev who studied and wrote his first poem in Odesa, as well as his social activity while teaching in Zadunayivka.

 

Kurys homestead was built in the beginning of XIX century in the village of Petrivka, Kominternovo district is an interest - ing embodiment of unique to Southern Ukraine architectural style. Land, where the homestead is situated belonged to Kurys family. Ivan Kurys for a long time has been a chief clerk and a faithful comrade in arms of Oleksandr Suvorov. They expe - rienced together many glorious victories. Colonel I.O. Kurys was awarded with the highest award of Russian Empire — St. George’s Cross. Then Colonel was granted land to the right of the river Tyligul. In 1820 Ivan Kurys built an unusual house on these lands. It was different from traditional estates of Russian nobility: it had ancient portico and columns, and the forest was planted around in the steppe, some trees survived up to now. In 1892, this homestead was completely rebuilt as a mag - nificent palace in Moorish style. The adjacent area had an En - glish style park with small canals that flowed into the pond where swans were swimming. At the top of the western wall the Kurys family large stone crest with engraved motto: “Long live the Truth” is clearly visible even today. Homested survived in turbulent revolutionary years but during Great Partiotic War it was completely plundered. In 1990 the building suffered from irreparable damage from fire caused by lightning. Currently this architectural masterpiece needs full restoration. Another building also owned by Kurys family - a palace in Isaeve village of Mykolaiv district which attracts tourists. Con - struction of Kurys palace in Isaevо was completed in 1905. This charming building in Art Neuveau style with elements of Romanticism, harmoniously linked with the surrounding landscape, is always admired by the tourists. Much of orna - mental interior such as wooden stairs, mouldings on the ceil - ing and so on preserved here.

 

Settlements located in the North of Odesa region and above all - Balta town are not less interesting in the context of cul - tural and cognitive tourism. It was created by combining two settlements that in due time belonged to different states: Ottoman Empire and Pol - ish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. First in XVI century on their right bank of the Kodyma river the Ottomans built Balta fortress. Ukrainian, Russian and Pol - ish peasants who fled from serfdom began to settle around founding with the lapse of time the settlement of Balta. On a high left bank of Kodyma River which lies opposite the Turkish Balta, Polish tycoon count Józef Lubomyrski built a fortified castle, which defended his properties from Tatar and Turkish hordes attacks. A settlement grew up near its walls and together with fortification was named Józef Grad. After another Russian-Turkish War, Turkish town of Balta was annexed to Russian Empire and Józef Grad existed until 1775. Then during the accession of these lands to Russian state it was renamed into Yelensk. In a while, in 1797 Yelensk and Balta were officially combined into Balta, which becomes the district bridge of Podilska province. The most prominent monuments of history, architecture and urban development, in particular, the palace of Liubo - myrskyi Counts (XVIII c.), Barracks of Baltskyi-Podilskyi Regiment (XVIII c.), shopping arcade (XIX c.), former gym - nasium building (XIX c.), fire tower (early XX c.) and so on were preserved on the territory of Balta. By the way, one of the first documented mention of Ukrainian Cossacks is associated with Northern districts of Odesa region. According to chronicler M. Belskyi data of 1489, the son of King Casimir IV, Jan Albrecht, was persecuting Ta - tars who invaded Podillia. Local Cossacks were ahead of Pol - ish troops and they took him to Savranka (Savran) river. The Cossacks from XV century were the first to settle in steppe areas of Southern Podillia. The Cossack small farms originally started to appear on undeveloped lands which eventually turned into villages and towns. According to legends, a number of settlements names in Kodyma district is associated with the names of Cossacks - the founders of settlements: Kodyma - from Cossack Kodymka (Nykodymka), Zahnitkiv - from Nytka, Ivashkiv - from Ivashko, Tymkove - from Tymka etc. Kodymske Pobuzhia area in our history is known by a num - ber of famous victories of Cossacks over Tartars and Turks. Cossacks’ courage is clearly shown in the battle that took place in 1693 near the river Kodyma when a seven thousands detachment, headed by Cossack Colonel Semen Paliy, defeat - ed Tatar Khan army of forty thousands moving on their way to Kyiv. The northern districts of Odesa region are inseparably linked with a number of national liberation and social and political movements. Thus, in late XVIII century local forests were a base of Gaidamak detachments of Sava Chalyi, Gry - gorii Medved (Bear), Procopii Rud, Matvii Gryva (Mane), Vasyl Shylo (Awl) and others.

 

Today tourists also have the opportunity to walk along the paths of national avenger Ustym Karmaliuk and visit the cave created at the top of the rock, called Karmaliuk rock. This cave is located near the village Zahnitkiv of Kodyma district. Likely that, during the rebellion of peasants against serfdom, which Karmaliuk led in 1814 the cave was used by the rebels as an observation post.

 

Continuation of the heroic past of our region is another area of historical tourism associated with the period of Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. And it was no fluke because Odesa became the first city in former USSR, awarded with the title of Hero City. Odesa heroic 73-day defense of August-October 1941 became in fact first successful strategic operation at the beginning of Great Patriotic War. Retreating with the orders of Supreme High Command General Headquarters, the defenders of Odesa promised to return. It exactly happened so. Odesa has retreated but did not give up. The city was occupied by Germans up to 9th of April 1944 and the fighting was still going on. In the suburbs of Odesa there were 6 guerrilla detachments and 45 clandestine groups. Odesa catacombs became their base during the occupation. It’s a complex labyrinth of underground galleries formed due to quarrying savage limestone for the construction of old Odesa. During Great Patriotic War they became invincible fortress under the ground. Today the Museum of Partisan Glory operates in the catacombs near Nerubaiske village of Biliaivka district which presents guerrilla camp of the World War Second period.

 

A memorial plaque and models of mud huts where so called “people’s avengers” lived were built in 1970’s in Savranskyi forest on the historic locations of guerrilla group “Burevisnyk” base which operated in 1942-1944. In March 1944 “Burevisnyk” fighters joined the military units of the 2nd Ukrainian Front and took part in Savranskyi area liberation from occupants. Even today in Savranskyi forest one can find on the remains of craters from bombs and shells explosions and bullets and shrapnels; and they are in not a single tree trunk. The time is distancing us from the war years and it gives possibility to fully evaluate the immortal heroism of soldiers who accepted death in the name of life, in the name of freedom and independence of their Homeland.

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